Working with lead

Health Effects When Working With Lead.

Posted By Kelly Hone on 2018-05-03 10:14

What You Need to Know When Working With Lead

Lead can be absorbed by:

  • breathing in lead dust, fume or vapour.
  • swallowing lead by drinking, eating, smoking or nail-biting after lead exposure (particularly if hands have not been washed and correct PPE has not been worn).

Unfortunately, once lead has been absorbed by the body, it circulates in the blood and accumulates in the bones. It can stay there for many years without causing any problems, but can also cause many types of health issues.

Activities that may involve coming into contact with lead

The most common involvement with lead includes:

  • lead smelting, melting and burning;
  • vitreous enamelling on glass and metal;
  • glazing pottery;
  • the manufacture of lead compounds such as red and white lead and lead colours;
  • manufacture of leaded glass and rubber;
  • shipbuilding/shipbreaking;
  • painting and spray painting of some vehicles;
  • paint stripping from old buildings, doors and windows;
  • plumbing and soldering operations.


The health effects of working with lead

Lead absorption can have several health consequences, which vary in severity. These symptoms include:

  • constipation;
  • nausea;
  • memory and concentration problems;
  • metallic taste in the mouth
  • fatigue;
  • headaches;
  • weight loss;
  • stomach pain;
  • irritability.

If the lead absorption continues, this can cause more serious problems such as:

  • kidney disease;
  • brain or nerve damage;
  • infertility.

Lead absorption is also particularly dangerous for pregnant women as lead can pass the placental barrier from the mother to the unborn child, and can poison the foetus before birth. Women who are pregnant should not be exposed to high amounts of lead and women of childbearing age should exercise particular caution and a high standard of personal hygiene when working with lead. Though a pregnant worker’s risk assessment should support managers to address the risks, many of these measures should already be considered so that ladies who may become pregnant are protected.

Protecting your employees from lead absorption:

As an employer you have the responsibility to protect your workforce from lead exposure:


  • Use all provided equipment, following instructions for use at all times.
  • Any damaged or defective equipment is to be flaged to the employer.
  • Wear the correct PPE and return it at the end of the day as instructed.


  • Keep your work area clean and tidy before, after and during.
  • Make sure all lead waste is cleared up and disposed of at end of day.
  • Wash your hands and face and scrub your nails before eating, drinking or smoking. Avoid biting nails.
  • Only eat and drink in designated areas.
  • Wash and change before you go home if necessary.
  • Do not take home any PPE for washing/cleaning. 


  • Make sure your employees have the correct training and information in order to work safely. They should also be aware of emergency procedures, such as what to do if there is a sudden release of lead dust.
  • Make sure your employees are aware and understand the dangers of lead exposure.

Your employees should also ensure they attend any medical appointments arranged by yourself as biological monitoring can help to ensure your workforce are not exposed to harmful amounts of lead.

How you as an employer should protect you workers from lead exposure!

As an employer, you are responsible for the safety of your staff!

If you are an employer who has employees who work with lead, you should:

  • Carry out regular risk assessments to assess the levels of lead in the workplace;
  • Put in place controls and systems to prevent and control lead exposure e.g. a dust extractor;
  • Make sure all equipment is maintained;
  • Provide washing and changing facilities;
  • Provide a lead-free area for eating and drinking;
  • Tell your staff about lead exposure, the potential health risks and what steps they can take to limit their exposure/risk;
  • Ensure that staff are properly trained and know how to use equipment, and PPE;
  • Keep good records;
  • Assess the requirement for biological monitoring under the supervision of a HSE appointed doctor – this can also help you to be sure that staff are not exposed to harmful levels of lead
  • Seek expert help if you are in doubt. 

What employers should do if lead exposure is significant

If the exposure to lead in the workplace is significant, you should:

  • Make arrangements for laundering clothing;
  • Measure the levels of lead in the air and inform employees of this. If the levels of lead cannot be kept below a certain level, you should provide employees with the correct respiratory protective equipment;
  • Measure the level of lead in employees’ bodies via a blood test done by a specialist- Inform employees of their results- This is part of occupational health surveillance.

As a result of blood tests, action may need to be taken. The type of action taken depends on the levels of lead in the blood. Guidance in this area refers to:

  • ‘Action’ levels: once blood lead levels reach the action levels, you as an employer must investigate and try to reduce lead exposure;
  • ‘Suspension’ levels: if levels reach the suspension level despite control measures, specialists will usually decide against continued work with lead. As an employer, you must act on a specialists decision, and employees will not be able to work with lead again until it is safe to do so.



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